Maintaining good oral hygiene is a very important criterion for proper health of the gums. Gums are the tissues which cover the bone and the teeth. Maintenance of the gums is very important for the tooth to have a tight grip.
Gum has a contour around the teeth. Change in the contour of the gums i.e., swelling, bleeding, dark red color etc., can represent an abnormality.
Then what about the treatment? There are two kinds of treatment:
Non- surgical treatment
Non- surgical treatment involves scaling and Sub gingival curettage. Scaling is done on the supra-gingival tooth structure (tooth which appear above the gum); Sub-gingival curettage is done under the gum on the root part of the tooth. Specialized instruments are used to remove the plaque/calculus under the gums.
Plaque builds on the exposed root surfaces mostly in the areas where gum is damaged, the condition in which the gum tends to swell, inflame and bleed. For which sub-gingival curettage is the treatment option. Where the root surfaces are inspected and cleaned.
Surgical maintenance of gums will be preferred by the clinician when extent of damage of gums and supporting bone seems to be high. As the supporting bone gets weakened the tooth/teeth tend to wobble, there by patient loses the capacity to bite hard food substances. Destruction of supporting structures of tooth as mentioned above, due to infection shows symptoms in the gums like pain, swelling, reddishness, bleeding, bad breath etc.
This surgery involves usage of high precision instruments, which are meant to curette/clean the underlying bone and gums. An incision or surgical cut is placed on the gums to be treated, where it is raised from the tooth and bone underlying. Once the procedure of removal of infection is accomplished, it is adapted properly with the help of sutures. Extent of damage of gum determines the extent of the surgical site; if localized, surgery can be done to that area alone.
These are the conventional methods followed, but better results are obtained by the use of laser treatments. The feedback from most of the patients is excellent. So for patients who seek for quality this is the best option. The black colored gums called pigmented gums can also be treated with this procedure.
Periodontist is the specialist who expertise these kind of gum surgeries.